The Role of Estriol and Estrone in Keratoconic Stromal Sex Hormone Receptors

Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal thinning disease that manifests in puberty and worsens during pregnancy. KC onset and progression are attributed to diverse factors that include: environmental, genetics, and hormonal imbalances; however, the pathobiology remains elusive. This study aims to determine the role of corneal stroma sex hormone receptors in KC and their interplay with estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) using our established 3D in vitro model. Healthy cornea stromal cells (HCFs) and KC cornea stromal cells (HKCs), both male and female, were stimulated with various concentrations of E1 and E3. Significant changes were observed between cell types, as well as between males and females in the sex hormone receptors tested; androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) using Western blot analysis. E1 and E3 stimulations in HCF females showed AR, PR, and ERβ were significantly upregulated compared to HCF males.
In contrast, ERα and ERβ had significantly higher expression in HKC’s females than HKC’s males. Our data suggest that the human cornea is a sex-dependent, hormone-responsive tissue that is significantly influenced by E1 and E3. Therefore, it is plausible that E1, E3, and sex hormone receptors are involved in the KC pathobiology, warranting further investigation.

Compatibility of Estradiol, Estriol, Estrone, Progesterone, and Testosterone Single Formulation in Fitalite, Versatile, or HRT Supreme Cream Base

In this work, we focus on three ready-to-use vehicles: Fitalite, Versatile, and HRT Supreme Cream Base. Fitalite is a natural, light, hydrophilic gel-cream that contains vitamin E and oil bodies from plant sources (phytosomes), providing antioxidant and skinmoisturizing properties. Versatile is a vanishing oil-inwater cream base which retains its consistency with a broad range and high concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients, dermaceutical ingredients, and solvents. Finally, HRT Supreme Cream Base is a paraben-free, dye-free, fragrance-free O/W emulsion base, formulated with a complex of botanical oils to soothe and provide moisture to dry and sensitive skin. In the current study, we evaluated the beyond-use date of formulations containing estradiol, estriol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone in combination, compounded with these three vehicles.
Validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography methods were used throughout a 180-day period. A beyond-use date of 180 days was observed for all vehicles stored both at refrigerated and at room temperature. The combination of five ingredients represents a worst-case scenario since there are more possibilities of cross reactions. Therefore, we expect the same or greater stability as individual ingredients are removed from the tested formulation. The extended beyond-use dates provide convenience for both the compounding pharmacist and the patient.

A technical and clinical evaluation of the new ThermoFisher BRAHMS unconjugated estriol and inhibin-A assays and their use in second trimester Down syndrome screening

To evaluate second-trimester Down syndrome screening performance of the new ThermoFisher BRAHMS GOLD unconjugated estriol (uE3) and inhibin-A assays. Serum samples were analyzed for levels of uE3 and inhibin-A using the ThermoFisher BRAHMS GOLD immunoanalyzer and compared to other platforms. Levels were transformed to multiples of the median (MoM) in unaffected pregnancies. Log10 MoM distributions in unaffected and Down syndrome pregnancies were assessed for central tendency (mean) and dispersion (SD). Empirical and estimated screening performances were determined. Correlation between BRAHMS and AutoDELFIA® uE3 and inhibin-A were 0.63 and 0.97, respectively, the respective mean difference was 31.3% [95%CI 50.2% to -112.8%] and -23.3% [95%CI -41.9% to -4.7%]. Passing-Bablok indicated significant systematic (-2.78 [95%CI -3.57 to -2.04]) and proportional bias (1.30 [95%CI 1.15 to -1.47]) between uE3 assays and significant proportional bias (0.71[95%CI 0.65-0.78]) between inhibin-A assays.
The uE3 and inhibin-A log10 MoM distribution mean [SD] in unaffected and Down syndrome pregnancies were 0.0024 [SD = 0.2341] and -0.0001 [SD = 0.2078], and -0.2028 [SD = 0.2495] and 0.3645 [SD = 0.2576], respectively. The new BRAHMS uE3 and inhibin-A assays had an 81-83% detection rate for Trisomy21 for a 5% false-positive rate. The new BRAHMS assays achieved the expected screening performance provided the risk estimation model is adjusted to account for the higher BRAHMS uE3 MoM measurement distribution variance.

Estriol dissolving microneedle patches for protection against ionizing radiation-induced injury

Estriol can be used to treat radiation-induced leukopenia by increasing peripheral blood leukocytes and therefore it plays an important role in radiation protection. However, only high-dose injectable suspensions are available when estriol is used to combat against ionizing radiation-induced injury. Intramuscular (i.m.) administration of estriol is very painful and inconvenient, and the lack of timely self-administered formulation greatly limits the wide application of estriol. This will facilitate quick response under emergent conditions in complementary with the available estriol formulations. Herein, we prepared estriol microneedle (MNs) patches for the convenient and efficient treatment of radiation-induced injury.
A biocompatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone K90, was dissolved in an estriol solution of methanol and cast into a mold to obtain conical-shaped MNs. N-vinyl pyrrolidone was poured on the base of the MNs and photocured to enhance the mechanical strength of estriol MNs (EMNs). EMNs were easily pierced 200 μm into the mouse skin. More importantly, the EMNs tips were dissolved very quickly within 5 min so that the drugs could permeate across skin. Mouse models of ionizing radiation-induced injury were established with 6.5 Gy radiation of 60Co γ ray. Moreover, EMNs increased peripheral blood leukocytes in irradiated mice, protected the bone marrow hematopoietic system, and improved the survival rate of the irradiated mice to 80 %. EMNs are a promising transdermal drug delivery system that allows for easy, rapid administration and protects the body from damage caused by ionizing radiation.

Estradiol 17b, 6-CMO (Estradiol 6, 17b CMO)

MBS638945-5mg MyBiosource 5mg 855 EUR

Estradiol 17b, 6-CMO (Estradiol 6, 17b CMO)

MBS638945-5x5mg MyBiosource 5x5mg 3695 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-1000 ApexBio 1g 42 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 40 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-50 ApexBio 50 mg 157.2 EUR

Estradiol

317788 MedKoo Biosciences 500.0mg 195 EUR

Estradiol

20-abx185851 Abbexa
  • Ask for price
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  • 1 g
  • 25 g
  • 5 g

Estradiol

DE2693 Demeditec Diagnostics 96 84 EUR

Estradiol

E1KS1709 EnoGene 100 mg 151.2 EUR

Estradiol

AT070 Unibiotest 1mg 1641.6 EUR

Estradiol

AG070 Unibiotest 1 mg 627.6 EUR

Estradiol

MBS122090-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 220 EUR

Estradiol

MBS122090-1mg MyBiosource 1mg 350 EUR

Estradiol

MBS122090-5x1mg MyBiosource 5x1mg 1490 EUR

Estradiol

MBS122091-01mg MyBiosource 0.1mg 220 EUR

Estradiol

MBS122091-1mg MyBiosource 1mg 350 EUR

Estradiol

MBS122091-5x1mg MyBiosource 5x1mg 1490 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683 Glentham Life Sciences 1g 304.24 EUR

Estradiol

GWB-2E7E30 GenWay Biotech 1 ml Ask for price

Estradiol

HY-B0141 MedChemExpress 500mg 129.6 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-1 Glentham Life Sciences 1 27.8 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-10 Glentham Life Sciences 10 172.4 EUR

Cortisol and estriol responses to awakening in the first pregnancy trimester: Associations with maternal stress and resilience factors

Background: Little is known about the maternal cortisol awakening response (CAR) in the first pregnancy trimester. Similarly unknown is how the CAR in early gestation relates to other steroid hormones, such as estriol. Maternal estriol in blood and urine is used to monitor fetal well-being since it is produced by the fetoplacental unit from fetal precursors. Low levels have been associated with maternal-fetal complications. We were recently able to show that estriol is measurable in maternal saliva from 6 weeks’ gestation onwards. However, its pattern following morning awakening and potential links with salivary cortisol in early gestation is relatively unknown. In this prospective study, we explored the cortisol and estriol responses to morning awakening in first-trimester pregnant women, the potential association of these endocrine variables with maternal stress and resilience factors, and their predictive value for the further pregnancy course.
Methods: Fifty-one women with an uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy responded to questionnaires measuring chronic and pregnancy-specific stress, emotional support, and daily uplifts at 6 weeks’ gestation. At 8 and 10 weeks, the women collected saliva samples immediately, 30, and 60 min after morning awakening. After 12 weeks, 40 women reported on the further pregnancy course, of whom 6 had developed complications.
Results: In response to morning awakening, cortisol levels increased significantly at 10 weeks (p = .04), while estriol levels decreased significantly at both 8 and 10 weeks (p < .001). A stronger cortisol increase was linked to a stronger estriol decrease at 8 (p = .03), but not at 10 weeks. Then, perceived emotional support at 6 weeks was negatively associated with cortisol baseline at 8 (p = .01) and positively with estriol baseline at 10 weeks (p = .03). Moreover, higher pregnancy-specific stress was related to a lower estriol baseline at 8 weeks (p = .047). Furthermore, compared to healthy women, those with complications at follow-up had already reported less emotional support (p = .03) and fewer daily uplifts (p = .03) at 6 weeks. These women also seemed to lack a significant estriol response to morning awakening at 8 weeks (p > .10).
Discussion: These findings advance our knowledge of cortisol and estriol secretion following morning awakening and encourage the investigation of E3 in addition to cortisol when researching prenatal stress and its consequences for maternal and fetal health.

EVALUATION OF EPIANDROSTERONE AS A LONG-TERM MARKER OF TESTOSTERONE USE

  • Identification and evaluation of long-term markers is crucial in prolonging the detection window for anabolic steroid abuse in sport. Recently, sulfoconjugated epiandrosterone was identified as a potential long-term marker for the abuse of certain endogenous anabolic agents, including testosterone, which continues to be widely used as a performance enhancing agent in sport. To evaluate the applicability of epiandrosterone sulfate as a marker for testosterone use, administration studies were conducted with multiple modes of testosterone administration – transdermal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous.
  • A modified sample preparation method was used to collect both glucuronidated and sulfoconjugated analytes of interest. Carbon isotope ratio measurements from the administration studies are presented here. Epiandrosterone was less effective than the conventionally used target compounds for detection of the low dose application (transdermal gel). With intramuscular administration, epiandrosterone was more diagnostic than with transdermal administration, but it did not prolong the detection window more than the conventional target compounds.
  • With subcutaneous administration, the doses administered to the subjects were varied and the effect in the epiandrosterone values was dependent on the magnitude of the dose administered. Epiandrosterone does not appear to be a useful marker in the detection of low dose testosterone administration. It is responsive to higher dose administration, but it does not provide extension of the detection window relative to conventional target compounds.

Development and validation of a fast gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for the detection of epiandrosterone sulfate in urine.

In doping control, to confirm the exogenous origin of exogenously administered anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), a gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis is performed. Recently published work suggests epiandrosterone sulfate (EpiAS) as a promising IRMS target compound for the detection of AAS, capable of prolonging the detection window. However, EpiAS is only excreted in urine in its sulfoconjugated form while all other IRMS target compounds are excreted glucuronidated, meaning that EpiAS cannot be incorporated in the existing IRMS methods.
A separate extensive sample preparation needs to be performed on this compound with a different hydrolysis and extraction procedure and a different liquid chromatography (LC) clean-up. The current work presents a new, fast and easy to implement EpiAS IRMS method. The approach was based on the direct GC analysis of non-hydrolysed EpiAS, making the solid phase extraction, hydrolysis and acetylation step redundant.
Sample preparation consisted of a simple liquid liquid extraction, followed by LC fraction collection. A population study was performed to check the compliance with the criteria drafted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To verify the applicability of the developed approach, the method was applied to the samples of four administration studies (i.e., dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone gel (T gel), androstenedione (ADION) and intramuscular testosterone undecanoate. In contrast to previously published data, the strength of EpiAS as target compound and the prolongation of the detection window in comparison with the conventional IRMS target compounds was less pronounced.

Synthesis and bioevaluation of novel steroidal isatin conjugates derived from epiandrosterone/androsterone.

Steroids are classes of natural products widely distributed in nature, which have been demonstrated to exhibit broad biological functions, and have also attracted increasing interest from bioorganic and pharmaceutical researches. In order to develop novel chemical entities as potential cytotoxic agents, a series of steroidal isatin conjugations derived from epiandrosterone and androsterone were efficiently prepared and characterized, and all these obtained compounds were screened for their potential cytotoxic activities.
The preliminary bioassay indicated that most of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited good cytotoxic activities against human gastric cancer (SGC-7901), melanoma (A875), and hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which might be considered as promising scaffold for further development of potential anticancer agents.

The quantitation of 7beta-hydroxy-epiandrosterone in the plasma and seminal plasma of men with different degrees of fertility.

7beta-hydroxy-epiandrosterone (7beta-OH-EpiA) is an endogenous androgen metabolite that has been shown to exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-estrogenic effects. However, to the best of our knowledge no information is available about this androgen steroid in relation to sperm quality. We analyzed 7beta-OH-EpiA in plasma and seminal plasma using a newly developed isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry method. Validation met the requirements of FDA guidelines. Levels of 7beta-OH-EpiA were measured in 191 men with different degrees of infertility. One-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison and correlation analysis adjusted for age, BMI and abstinence time were performed to evaluate the relationships between this steroid and sperm quality.
Concentrations of 7beta-OH-EpiA in seminal plasma were significantly higher in severely infertile men in comparison with healthy men and slightly infertile men. The same trend was found when blood plasma was evaluated. Furthermore, plasma 7beta-OH-EpiA negatively correlated with sperm concentration (-0.215; p<0.01) and total count (-0.15; p<0.05). Seminal 7beta-OH-EpiA was negatively associated with motility (-0.26; p<0.01), progressively motile spermatozoa (-0.233; p<0.01) and nonprogressively motile spermatozoa (-0.188; p<0.05). 7beta-OH-EpiA is associated with lower sperm quality and deserves more research in that respect.

Epiandrosterone sulfate prolongs the detectability of testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone misuse by means of carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

In the course of investigations into the metabolism of testosterone (T) by means of deuterated T and hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry, a pronounced influence of the oral administration of T on sulfoconjugated steroid metabolites was observed. Especially in case of epiandrosterone sulfate (EPIA_S), the contribution of exogenous T to the urinary metabolite was traceable up to 8 days after a single oral dose of 40 mg of T. These findings initiated follow-up studies on the capability of EPIA_S to extend the detection of T and T analogue misuse by carbon isotope ratio (CIR) mass spectrometry in sports drug testing. Excretion study urine samples obtained after transdermal application of T and after oral administration of 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and EPIA were investigated regarding urinary concentrations and CIR.
With each administered steroid, EPIA_S was significantly depleted and prolonged the detectability when compared to routinely used steroidal target compounds by a factor of 2 to 5. In order to simplify the sample preparation procedure for sulfoconjugated compounds, enzymatic cleavage by Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase was tested and implemented into CIR measurements for the first time. Further simplification was achieved by employing multidimensional gas chromatography to ensure the required peak purity for CIR determinations, instead of sample purification strategies using liquid chromatographic fractionation. Taking into account these results that demonstrate the unique and broad applicability of EPIA_S for the detection of illicit administrations of T or T-related steroids, careful consideration of how this steroid can be implemented into routine doping control analysis appears warranted.

An omics investigation into chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain reveals epiandrosterone sulfate as a potential biomarker.

Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is common, having a population prevalence of 10%. This study aimed to define the biological basis of the CWP/body mass association by using a systems biology approach. Adult female twins (n = 2444) from the TwinsUK registry who had extensive clinical, anthropometric, and “omic” data were included. Nontargeted metabolomics screening including 324 metabolites was carried out for CWP and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The biological basis of these associations was explored through a genome-wide association study and replicated in an independent population sample (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg [KORA] study, n = 2483). A causal role for the genetic variants identified was sought in CWP using a Mendelian randomisation study design.
Fat mass/height2 was the body composition variable most strongly associated with CWP (TwinsUK: P = 2.4 × 10(-15) and KORA: P = 1.59 × 10(-10)). Of 324 metabolites examined, epiandrosterone sulfate (EAS) was highly associated with both CWP (P = 1.05 × 10(-09) in TwinsUK and P = 3.70 × 10(-06) in KORA) and fat mass/height2. Genome-wide association study of EAS identified imputed single nucleotide polymorphism rs1581492 at 7q22.1 to be strikingly associated with EAS levels (P ≤ 2.49 × 10(-78)), and this result was replicated in KORA (P = 2.12 × 10(-9)). Mendelian randomization by rs1581492 genotype showed that EAS is unlikely to be causally related to CWP. Using an agnostic omics approach to focus on the association of CWP with body mass index, we have confirmed a steroid hormone association and identified a genetic variant upstream of the CYP genes, which likely controls this response. This study suggests that steroid hormone abnormalities result from pain rather than causing it, and EAS may provide a biomarker that identifies subgroups at risk of CWP.

Epiandrosterone

E578000 Toronto Research Chemicals 1g 164 EUR

Epiandrosterone

B1505-1000 ApexBio 1 g 32 EUR

Epiandrosterone

B1505-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 135.6 EUR

Epiandrosterone

B1505-S ApexBio Evaluation Sample 97.2 EUR

Epiandrosterone

GP6146 Glentham Life Sciences 1g 29.04 EUR

Epiandrosterone

HY-I0352 MedChemExpress 500mg 129.6 EUR

Epiandrosterone

GP6146-1 Glentham Life Sciences 1 31.7 EUR

Epiandrosterone

GP6146-1G Glentham Life Sciences 1 g 74.4 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS342094-05mL MyBiosource 0.5mL 790 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS342094-5x05mL MyBiosource 5x0.5mL 3385 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS340129-10mg MyBiosource 10mg 3105 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS340129-1mg MyBiosource 1mg 800 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS340129-5x10mg MyBiosource 5x10mg 13805 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS3604607-100mg MyBiosource 100mg 200 EUR

Epiandrosterone

MBS3604607-5x100mg MyBiosource 5x100mg 580 EUR

Epiandrosterone (HRP)

abx284059-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Epiandrosterone (HRP)

abx284059-20g Abbexa 20 µg 862.5 EUR

Epiandrosterone (HRP)

abx284059-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

Epiandrosterone-d5

E578002 Toronto Research Chemicals 10mg 201 EUR

Epiandrosterone-HRP

80-1155 Fitzgerald 500 ul 844 EUR

Epiandrosterone-HRP

MBS5304382-05mL MyBiosource 0.5mL 1485 EUR

Epiandrosterone-HRP

MBS5304382-5x05mL MyBiosource 5x0.5mL 6535 EUR

Dehydro Epiandrosterone

D229585 Toronto Research Chemicals 100mg 64 EUR

Epiandrosterone acetate

E578018 Toronto Research Chemicals 750mg 800 EUR

Epiandrosterone Sulfate

T2195L-10mg TargetMol Chemicals 10mg Ask for price

Epiandrosterone Sulfate

T2195L-1g TargetMol Chemicals 1g Ask for price

Epiandrosterone Sulfate

T2195L-1mg TargetMol Chemicals 1mg Ask for price

Epiandrosterone Sulfate

T2195L-50mg TargetMol Chemicals 50mg Ask for price

An omics investigation into chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain reveals epiandrosterone sulfate as a potential biomarker.

Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is common, having a population prevalence of 10%. This study aimed to define the biological basis of the CWP/body mass association by using a systems biology approach. Adult female twins (n = 2444) from the TwinsUK registry who had extensive clinical, anthropometric, and “omic” data were included. Nontargeted metabolomics screening including 324 metabolites was carried out for CWP and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The biological basis of these associations was explored through a genome-wide association study and replicated in an independent population sample (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg [KORA] study, n = 2483). A causal role for the genetic variants identified was sought in CWP using a Mendelian randomisation study design.
Fat mass/height2 was the body composition variable most strongly associated with CWP (TwinsUK: P = 2.4 × 10(-15) and KORA: P = 1.59 × 10(-10)). Of 324 metabolites examined, epiandrosterone sulfate (EAS) was highly associated with both CWP (P = 1.05 × 10(-09) in TwinsUK and P = 3.70 × 10(-06) in KORA) and fat mass/height2. Genome-wide association study of EAS identified imputed single nucleotide polymorphism rs1581492 at 7q22.1 to be strikingly associated with EAS levels (P ≤ 2.49 × 10(-78)), and this result was replicated in KORA (P = 2.12 × 10(-9)). Mendelian randomization by rs1581492 genotype showed that EAS is unlikely to be causally related to CWP. Using an agnostic omics approach to focus on the association of CWP with body mass index, we have confirmed a steroid hormone association and identified a genetic variant upstream of the CYP genes, which likely controls this response. This study suggests that steroid hormone abnormalities result from pain rather than causing it, and EAS may provide a biomarker that identifies subgroups at risk of CWP.

Urinary biomarkers for the detection of ovarian cancer: A systematic review

Currently, the only definitive method for diagnosing ovarian cancer involves histological examination of tissue obtained at time of surgery or by invasive biopsy. Blood has traditionally been the biofluid of choice in ovarian cancer biomarker discovery; however, there has been a growing interest in exploring urinary biomarkers, particularly as it is non-invasive. In this systematic review, we present the diagnostic accuracy of urinary biomarker candidates for the detection of ovarian cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed using the MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE, up to 1 st April 2021. All included studies reported the diagnostic accuracy using sensitivity and/or specificity and/or receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Risk of bias and applicability of included studies were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool.
Twenty seven studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Protein/peptide biomarkers were most commonly described (n=18), with seven studies reporting composite scores of multiple protein-based targets. The most frequently described urinary protein biomarker was HE4 (n=5), with three studies reporting a sensitivity and specificity >80%. Epigenetic (n=1) and metabolomic/organic compound biomarkers (n=8) were less commonly described. Overall, six studies achieved a sensitivity and specificity of >90% and/or an AUC >0.9. Evaluation of urinary biomarkers for the detection of ovarian cancer is a dynamic and growing field. Currently, the most promising biomarkers are those that interrogate metabolomic pathways and organic compounds, or quantify multiple proteins. Such biomarkers require external validation in large, prospective observational studies before they can be implemented into clinical practice.

Rapid electrostatic DNA enrichment for sensitive detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in clinical urinary samples

Estimated to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection globally, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, and increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Once diagnosed, TV infection can be treated with oral antibiotics; however, infected individuals are often asymptomatic and do not seek treatment. The WHO and others have identified a need for point-of-care tests to expand access to TV testing and screening; ideal test characteristics include high sensitivity and specificity and the ability to use urine as a sample type, rather than invasively collected swab samples. Here, we report on a proof-of-concept prototype for rapid, electrostatic enrichment of DNA from urine samples and demonstrate the use of large volumes of urine to increase sensitivity of downstream nucleic acid amplification testing.
We developed an internally controlled thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) assay with lateral flow immunoassay readout and demonstrate that this tHDA assay can be performed directly on our DNA capture filter. We validated our method using clinical urine samples with qPCR-quantified TV loads. Using 62 clinical urine samples and a simple sample processing device, our tHDA assay displayed 96.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Our analytical limit of detection was found to be approximately 7 genomic equivalents of TV DNA per mL of sample when 1 mL of sample was tested, comparable to existing isothermal tests for TV. Using large-volume simulated samples (40 mL of buffered urine with spiked-in TV DNA), we also demonstrated that sensitivity could be improved 28-fold to 0.25 genomic equivalents of TV DNA per mL, with a sample processing time of only 2 minutes.

Nanomaterials-Based Urinary Extracellular Vesicles Isolation and Detection for Non-invasive Auxiliary Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural nanoparticles secreted by cells in the body and released into the extracellular environment. They are associated with various physiological or pathological processes, and considered as carriers in intercellular information transmission, so that EVs can be used as an important marker of liquid biopsy for disease diagnosis and prognosis. EVs are widely present in various body fluids, among which, urine is easy to obtain in large amount through non-invasive methods and has a small dynamic range of proteins, so it is a good object for studying EVs. However, most of the current isolation and detection of EVs still use traditional methods, which are of low purity, time consuming, and poor efficiency; therefore, more efficient and highly selective techniques are urgently needed. Recently, inspired by the nanoscale of EVs, platforms based on nanomaterials have been innovatively explored for isolation and detection of EVs from body fluids.
These newly developed nanotechnologies, with higher selectivity and sensitivity, greatly improve the precision of isolation target EVs from urine. This review focuses on the nanomaterials used in isolation and detection of urinary EVs, discusses the advantages and disadvantages between traditional methods and nanomaterials-based platforms, and presents urinary EV-derived biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. We aim to provide a reference for researchers who want to carry out studies about nanomaterial-based platforms to identify urinary EVs, and we hope to summarize the biomarkers in downstream analysis of urinary EVs for auxiliary diagnosis of PCa disease in detail.

Rational Design of Phe-BODIPY Amino Acids as Fluorogenic Building Blocks for Peptide-based Detection of Urinary Tract Candida Infections

Fungal infections caused by Candida species are among the most prevalent in hospitalized patients. However, current methods for the detection of Candida fungal cells in clinical samples rely on time-consuming assays that hamper rapid and reliable diagnosis. Herein, we describe the rational development of new Phe-BODIPY amino acids as small fluorogenic building blocks and their application to generate fluorescent antimicrobial peptides for rapid labelling of Candida cells in urine.
We have used computational methods to analyse the fluorogenic behaviour of BODIPY-substituted aromatic amino acids and performed bioactivity and confocal microscopy experiments in different strains to confirm the utility and versatility of peptides incorporating Phe-BODIPYs. Finally, we have designed a simple and sensitive fluorescence-based assay for the detection of Candida albicans in human urine samples.

Creatinine Urinary Detection Kit (2 Plate)

K002-H1 Arbor Assays 2x96 well plates 296 EUR

Creatinine Urinary Detection Kit (10 Plate)

K002-H5 Arbor Assays 10x96 well plates 1182 EUR

OKAU00002-2PLATE - Creatinine Urinary Detection Kit

OKAU00002-2PLATE Aviva Systems Biology 2plate 259 EUR

OKAU00002-10PLATE - Creatinine Urinary Detection Kit

OKAU00002-10PLATE Aviva Systems Biology 10plate 879 EUR

Urine Creatinine Detection Kit

SKT-200-192 Stressmarq 2 plates of 96 wells 226 EUR

Urine Creatinine Detection Kit

MBS807896-10x96Wells MyBiosource 10x96Wells 1710 EUR

Urine Creatinine Detection Kit

MBS807896-2x96Wells MyBiosource 2x96Wells 375 EUR

Exosome Purification and Detection Kit (Urine)

abx290027-25tests Abbexa 25 tests 777.6 EUR

Multi-Species Creatinine Detection Kit for Urine

IMLCRKTBF Innovative research each 387 EUR

Multi-Species Creatinine Detection Kit for Urine

MBS8420179-1Kit MyBiosource 1Kit 555 EUR

Multi-Species Creatinine Detection Kit for Urine

MBS8420179-5x1Kit MyBiosource 5x1Kit 2510 EUR

NGAL (Detection Ab)

abx019242-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 777.6 EUR

SEB Detection Kit

6030 Chondrex 1 kit 377 EUR

LPS Detection Kit

6039 Chondrex 1 kit 404 EUR

DAB Detection Kit

E-IR-R101-1mL Elabscience Biotech 1mL 35 EUR

DAB Detection Kit

E-IR-R101-3mL Elabscience Biotech 3mL 50 EUR

DAB Detection Kit

E-IR-R101-6mL Elabscience Biotech 6mL 85 EUR

DAB Detection Kit

E-IR-R101-each Elabscience Biotech each Ask for price

TLR Detection Set

PSI-1806 ProSci 1 Set 1627.8 EUR

PD1 Detection Set

SD8600 ProSci 1 Set 537.9 EUR

TLR Detection Set

MBS154739-1Set MyBiosource 1Set 1410 EUR

TLR Detection Set

MBS154739-5x1Set MyBiosource 5x1Set 6515 EUR

NGAL (Detection Ab)

MBS355008-1mg MyBiosource 1mg 570 EUR

NGAL (Detection Ab)

MBS355008-5x1mg MyBiosource 5x1mg 2265 EUR

HROS Detection Kit

FLAPF100-2 Cell Technology 150 Tests 280 EUR

IRAK Detection Set

PSI-1802 ProSci 1 Set 884.4 EUR

A Prospective Multicenter Trial to Evaluate Urinary Metabolomics for Non-invasive Detection of Renal Allograft Rejection (PARASOL): Study Protocol and Patient Recruitment

Background: In an earlier monocentric study, we have developed a novel non-invasive test system for the prediction of renal allograft rejection, based on the detection of a specific urine metabolite constellation. To further validate our results in a large real-world patient cohort, we designed a multicentric observational prospective study (PARASOL) including six independent European transplant centers. This article describes the study protocol and characteristics of recruited better patients as subjects.
Methods: Within the PARASOL study, urine samples were taken from renal transplant recipients when kidney biopsies were performed. According to the Banff classification, urine samples were assigned to a case group (renal allograft rejection), a control group (normal renal histology), or an additional group (kidney damage other than rejection).
Results: Between June 2017 and March 2020, 972 transplant recipients were included in the trial (1,230 urine samples and matched biopsies, respectively). Overall, 237 samples (19.3%) were assigned to the case group, 541 (44.0%) to the control group, and 452 (36.7%) samples to the additional group. About 65.9% were obtained from male patients, the mean age of transplant recipients participating in the study was 53.7 ± 13.8 years. The most frequently used immunosuppressive drugs were tacrolimus (92.8%), mycophenolate mofetil (88.0%), and steroids (79.3%). Antihypertensives and antidiabetics were used in 88.0 and 27.4% of the patients, respectively. Approximately 20.9% of patients showed the presence of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA IgG antibodies at time of biopsy. Most of the samples (51.1%) were collected within the first 6 months after transplantation, 48.0% were protocol biopsies, followed by event-driven (43.6%), and follow-up biopsies (8.5%). Over time the proportion of biopsies classified into the categories Banff 4 (T-cell-mediated rejection [TCMR]) and Banff 1 (normal tissue) decreased whereas Banff 2 (antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]) and Banff 5I (mild interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy) increased to 84.2 and 74.5%, respectively, after 4 years post transplantation. Patients with rejection showed worse kidney function than patients without rejection.
Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of subjects recruited indicate a patient cohort typical for routine renal transplantation all over Europe. A typical shift from T-cellular early rejections episodes to later antibody mediated allograft damage over time after renal transplantation further strengthens the usefulness of our cohort for the evaluation of novel biomarkers for allograft damage.

Serum creatinine to cystatin C ratio reflects preoperative and early postoperative walking ability in older patients with hip fracture

Background: The sarcopenia index (SI), calculated as the ratio of serum creatinine to cystatin C levels, reflects skeletal muscle mass and strength. Patients with hip fracture (HF) and sarcopenia have poor functional outcomes, and many require long-term care after surgery. We hypothesized that the SI can predict preoperative and early postoperative functional outcomes.
Methods: Preoperative serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured to calculate the SI for patients with surgically treated HF (n = 130, mean age: 87.8 ± 6.9 years). Walking ability before and 2 weeks after surgery was assessed, and patients were dichotomized into independent and assistance groups. To assess the validity of the SI, we examined its correlation with the quality [computed tomography (CT) value] and quantity (cross-sectional area) of the muscles around the hip on the non-operated side, which were preoperatively measured using CT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of the SI.
Results: The SI of the preoperative independent (n = 77) and assistance groups (n = 53) significantly differed (70.2 ± 12.4 and 60.1 ± 9.8, respectively, P < 0.000001). At 2 weeks after surgery, the SI was significantly higher in the independent group (n = 31, 73.0 ± 14.9) than in the assistance group (n = 99, 64.0 ± 10.7, P = 0.0003). In the preoperative independent group, 28 could walk independently after surgery (SI: 74.8 ± 14.0) while 49 required assistance (SI: 67.7 ± 10.6, P = 0.01). For patients with femoral neck fracture (FNF), the SIs were significantly higher in the postoperative independent group (78.6 ± 15.7) than in the postoperative assistance group (63.2 ± 10.9, P = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the SI for postoperative walking ability was 0.95 (0.91-0.99, P = 0.03). The correlations of SIs with CT values and cross-sectional areas were as follows: iliopsoas at the apex of the femoral head, r = 0.40, P < 0.001 and r = 0.49, P < 0.001, respectively; rectus femoris at the level of the lessor trochanter, r = 0.26, P = 0.007 and r = 0.37, P < 0.001, respectively. ROC analysis for predicting postoperative walking ability in preoperative independent patients with HF and FNF revealed areas under the curve (95% confidence interval) of 0.63 (0.50-0.76) and 0.80 (0.65-0.96), respectively.
Conclusions: In patients with HF, the SI correlated with preoperative walking ability and could predict postoperative walking ability. Among patients who could walk independently before surgery, those with high SIs could walk independently early in the postoperative period. The SI is beneficial for estimating walking ability in patients with HF.

Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid-to-Creatinine Ratio and the Risk of Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Purpose: To investigate the association between serum uric acid-to-creatinine ratio (SUA/Cr) and the risk of developing metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Patients and methods: Overall, 1434 patients with T2DM who were admitted to Hebei General Hospital from January 2019 to December 2019 were selected as the study subjects. According to abdominal ultrasound findings, patients were divided into two groups: MAFLD group and non-MAFLD group. A total of 734 patients were diagnosed with MAFLD. Participants were divided into three study groups according to the SUA/Cr ratio. Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance were used to perform a comparison between groups. The relationship between SUA/Cr ratio and MAFLD risk was analyzed using correlation analysis and regression analysis. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed to verify the robustness of the results.
Results: The detection rate of MAFLD in patients with T2DM was 51.2%, and the detection rate of progressive liver fibrosis in T2DM patients with MAFLD was 36.6%. A significantly higher SUA/Cr ratio was seen in the MAFLD group than in the non-MAFLD group. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the SUA/Cr ratio was an independent risk factor for MAFLD development. Stronger correlations were found in participants with a body mass index ranging between 23 and 28 kg/m2, HbA1C >7%, or female sex.
Conclusion: An elevated SUA/Cr index is independently correlated with an increased risk of MAFLD in Chinese adults with T2DM.

Early prediction of COVID-19-associated Acute Kidney Injury: Are serum NGAL and serum Cystatin C levels better than serum creatinine?

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), often requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Serum Cystatin C (sCysC) and serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (sNGAL) are emerging biomarkers for kidney injury, and were suggested to be superior to serum creatinine (sCr) in several clinical settings. Moreover, elevated sCysC is associated with disease severity and mortality in COVID-19. We aimed to assess the utility of sCysC and sNGAL for predicting COVID-19-associated AKI, need for RRT, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, when measured at presentation to the emergency department (ED).
Methods: Patients presenting to the ED with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included. The primary outcome was development of COVID-19-associated AKI, while the secondary outcomes were need for RRT and ICU admission.
Results: Among 52 COVID-19 patients, 22 (42.3%) developed AKI with 8/22 (36.4%) requiring RRT. Both sCr and sCysC demonstrated excellent performance for predicting AKI (AUC, 0.86 and 0.87, respectively) and need for RRT (AUC, 0.94 and 0.95, respectively). sNGAL displayed acceptable performance for predicting AKI (AUC, 0.81) and need for RRT (AUC, 0.87).
Conclusions: SCr and sCysC measured at ED presentation are both highly accurate predictors of AKI and need for RRT, whereas sNGAL demonstrated adequate diagnostic performance. While sCyC was previously shown to be superior to sCr as a diagnostic biomarker of kidney injury in certain etiologies, our findings demonstrate that sCr is comparable to sCyC in the context of predicting COVID-19-associated AKI. Given the high sensitivity of these biomarkers for predicting the need for RRT, and as sCysC is associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients, we recommend their measurement for enabling risk stratification and early intervention.

Creatinine Serum Samples

MBS173604-1Sample MyBiosource 1Sample 310 EUR

Creatinine Serum Samples

MBS173604-5Samples MyBiosource 5Samples 1005 EUR

Creatinine Serum Samples

MBS173604-5x5Samples MyBiosource 5x5Samples 4310 EUR

Creatinine Serum Detection Kit

SKT-217-192 Stressmarq 2 plates of 96 wells 248 EUR

Creatinine Serum Kit (2 Plate)

KB02-H1 Arbor Assays 2x96 well plates 302 EUR

Creatinine Serum Kit (4 Plate)

KB02-H2 Arbor Assays 4x96 well plates 484 EUR

OKAU00065-1PLATE - Creatinine Serum Kit

OKAU00065-1PLATE Aviva Systems Biology 1plate 379 EUR

OKAU00065-2PLATE - Creatinine Serum Kit

OKAU00065-2PLATE Aviva Systems Biology 2plate 269 EUR

OKAU00065-4PLATE - Creatinine Serum Kit

OKAU00065-4PLATE Aviva Systems Biology 4plate 439 EUR

Creatinine Serum Low Sample Volume Kit (384-well Plate)

KB02-H1D Arbor Assays 1x384 well plate 431 EUR

Multi-Species Creatinine Detection Kit for Plasma and Serum

IMLCRKTPS Innovative research each 395 EUR

Multi-Species Creatinine Detection Kit for Plasma and Serum

MBS8420180-1Kit MyBiosource 1Kit 565 EUR

Multi-Species Creatinine Detection Kit for Plasma and Serum

MBS8420180-5x1Kit MyBiosource 5x1Kit 2555 EUR

Serum Creatinine ELISA kit (colorimetric, all species), 96 tests, quantitative

100-300-SCR Alpha Diagnostics 1 kit 343.2 EUR

Serum Creatinine ELISA kit (colorimetric, all species), 2x96 tests, quantitative

100-305-SCR Alpha Diagnostics 1 kit 562.8 EUR

Creatinine

591968 MedKoo Biosciences 25.0g 220 EUR

Creatinine

09626-34 NACALAI TESQUE 5G 11.55 EUR

Creatinine

09626-92 NACALAI TESQUE 25G 25.2 EUR

Creatinine

B1717-1000 ApexBio 1g 34 EUR

Creatinine

B1717-50 ApexBio 50 mg 153.6 EUR

Creatinine

B1717-5000 ApexBio 5g 48 EUR

Creatinine

C271-100MG TOKU-E 100 mg 223.26 EUR

The effect of gender-affirming hormone treatment on serum creatinine in transgender and gender-diverse youth: implications for estimating GFR

Background: Equations for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine include terms for sex/gender. For transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth, gender-affirming hormone (GAH) treatment may affect serum creatinine and in turn eGFR.
Methods: TGD youth were recruited for this prospective, longitudinal, observational study prior to starting GAH treatment. Data collected as part of routine clinical care were abstracted from the medical record.
Results: For participants designated male at birth (DMAB, N = 92), serum creatinine decreased within 6 months of estradiol treatment (mean ± SD 0.83 ± 0.12 mg/dL to 0.76 ± 0.12 mg/dL, p < 0.001); for participants designated female at birth (DFAB, n = 194), serum creatinine increased within 6 months of testosterone treatment (0.68 ± 0.10 mg/dL to 0.79 ± 0.11 mg/dL, p < 0.001). Participants DFAB treated with testosterone had serum creatinine similar to that of participants DMAB at baseline, whereas even after estradiol treatment, serum creatinine in participants DMAB remained higher than that of participants DFAB at baseline. Compared to reference groups drawn from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, serum creatinine after 12 months of GAH was more similar when compared by gender identity than by designated sex.
Conclusion: GAH treatment leads to changes in serum creatinine within 6 months of treatment. Clinicians should consider a patient’s hormonal exposure when estimating kidney function via eGFR and use other methods to estimate GFR if eGFR based on serum creatinine is concerning.

Genomic Indexing by Somatic Gene Recombination of mRNA/ncRNA – Does It Play a Role in Genomic Mosaicism, Memory Formation, and Alzheimer’s Disease?

Genomic Indexing by Somatic Gene Recombination of mRNA/ncRNA - Does It Play a Role in Genomic Mosaicism, Memory Formation, and Alzheimer's Disease?

Recent proof signifies that genomic individuality of neurons, characterised by DNA-content material variation, is a widespread if not common phenomenon in the human mind that happens naturally however may also present aberrancies which have been linked to the pathomechanism of Alzheimer’s illness and associated neurodegenerative issues.

Etiologically, this genomic mosaic has been prompt to come up from defects of cell cycle regulation that will happen both throughout mind growth or in the mature mind after terminal differentiation of neurons. Here, we purpose to attract consideration in the direction of one other mechanism that can provide rise to genomic individuality of neurons, with far-reaching penalties.

This mechanism has its origin in the transcriptome moderately than in replication defects of the genome, i.e., somatic gene recombination of RNA. We proceed to develop the idea that somatic gene recombination of RNA supplies a physiological course of that, by integration of intronless mRNA/ncRNA into the genome, permits a specific practical state on the degree of the person neuron to be listed.

By insertion of outlined RNAs in a somatic recombination course of, the presence of particular mRNA transcripts inside a particular temporal context could be “frozen” and can function an index that may be recalled at any later level in time. This permits data associated to a particular neuronal state of differentiation and/or exercise related to a reminiscence hint to be fastened. We recommend that this course of is used all through the lifetime of every neuron and might need each advantageous and deleterious penalties.

Genomic Indexing by Somatic Gene Recombination of mRNA/ncRNA - Does It Play a Role in Genomic Mosaicism, Memory Formation, and Alzheimer's Disease?
Genomic Indexing by Somatic Gene Recombination of mRNA/ncRNA – Does It Play a Role in Genomic Mosaicism, Memory Formation, and Alzheimer’s Disease?

Culturomics-based genomics sheds mild on the ecology of the brand new haloarchaeal genus Halosegnis.

The growth of tradition-unbiased strategies has revolutioned our understanding of microbial ecology, particularly by the illustration of the huge hole between the environmentally considerable microbial variety and that accessible by cultivation.

However, tradition-primarily based approaches usually are not solely essential for understanding the evolutionary, metabolic and ecological milieu of microbial variety, but additionally for the event of novel biotechnological functions.

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102540-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102540-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102546-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102546-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102550-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102550-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1235

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102551-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102551-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102553-002mL 0.02mL
EUR 155

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102553-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102553-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102555-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102555-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102557-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102557-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102561-002mL 0.02mL
EUR 175

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102561-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 320

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102561-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113304-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113304-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113305-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113305-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8119615-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8119615-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102544-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 275

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102544-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102544-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1080

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102549-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 275

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102549-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102549-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1080

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102560-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 275

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102560-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102560-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1080

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [4D6]

TA355049 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [8A4]

TA355050 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [7H6]

TA355052 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [4C7]

TA355054 100 µg Ask for price

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102541-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 315

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102541-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102541-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1270

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102547-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 315

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102547-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102547-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1270

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102554-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102554-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1405

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102556-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102556-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1405

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102559-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102559-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1405

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118940-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 315

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118940-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118940-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1270

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [10B3]

TA355055 100 µg Ask for price

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102543-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 225

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102543-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 150

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102543-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 870

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102548-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 225

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102548-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 150

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102548-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 870

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102558-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 225

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102558-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 150

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102558-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 870

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113306-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 275

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113306-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 160

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8113306-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1080

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PerCP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102542-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 315

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PerCP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102542-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PerCP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102542-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1270

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PerCP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118941-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 315

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PerCP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118941-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-1 Antibody (PerCP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118941-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 1270

Mouse Anti-Human CD279 (PD-1) mAbConjugated Antibody

CCM019 100ul
EUR 476.4

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460824-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 320

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460824-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1390

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460825-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 320

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460825-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1390

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460836-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 320

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460836-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1390

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460838-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 320

Mouse anti PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

MBS460838-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1390

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [8A4] (HRP)

TA355051 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody [7H6] (HRP)

TA355053 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human CD279 (PD-1) Antibody

xAP-0212 100ug
EUR 280

Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human CD279 (PD-1) Antibody

xAP-0213 100ug
EUR 280

Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human CD279 (PD-1) Antibody

xAP-0214 100ug
EUR 280

Recombinant Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse (2F3)

HGS-S238 100ul
EUR 107
Description: Recombinant Monoclonal Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Mouse (2F3) is expressed from Mouse

Mouse monoclona Anti-PD-L1 Antibody

TA355105 100 µg Ask for price

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100731-002mL 0.02mL
EUR 155

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100731-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100731-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100732-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100732-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100733-002mL 0.02mL
EUR 175

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100733-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 320

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100733-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1300

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100734-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100734-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100738-002mL 0.02mL
EUR 175

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100738-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 320

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100738-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1300

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100740-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100740-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Anti-PD-L2 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102134-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 300

Anti-PD-L2 Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8102134-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1200

Mouse PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody

TA319693 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 monoclonal antibody, clone N05

CABT-ZB577 50 μl
EUR 456
Description: Mouse

Mouse Anti-Human CD279 (PD-1) mAb Conjugated Antibody

MBS9455997-INQUIRE INQUIRE Ask for price

Mouse Anti-PD-1 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 2H2H11

7123 1 mg/ml x 0.1 ml
EUR 238
Description: Mouse Anti-PD-1 IgG Monoclonal Antibody

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 monoclonal antibody, clone NN29

CABT-ZB931 50 μl
EUR 456
Description: Mouse

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 monoclonal antibody, clone JID112

CABT-L2940-100uL500uL 100 uL, 500 uL
EUR 602.4

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 monoclonal antibody, clone JID112

CABT-L2940 100 µl, 500 µl Ask for price
Description: Mouse

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100737-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100737-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 150

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (PE), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100737-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 680

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L2 Antibody [7C7]

TA355063 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L2 Antibody [7C1]

TA355064 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody [4F2]

TA355066 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody [2D6]

TA355069 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody [1D7]

TA355071 100 µg Ask for price

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100735-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100735-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 150

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (APC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100735-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 680

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118889-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (HRP), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8118889-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1405

Mouse Recombinant anti-Human CD279 (PD-1) Recombinant Antibody

xAP-0215 100ug
EUR 280

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L2 Antibody [4E10]

TA355061 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L2 Antibody [8C12]

TA355062 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L2 Antibody [10H6]

TA355065 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody [8E12]

TA355067 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody [6H10]

TA355068 100 µg Ask for price

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody [1F11]

TA355070 100 µg Ask for price

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100736-100Tests 100Tests
EUR 185

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100736-25Tests 25Tests
EUR 150

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (FITC), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8100736-5x100Tests 5x100Tests
EUR 680

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 (CD279) Monoclonal antibody, clone J116

CABT-L4461-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1076.4

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 (CD279) Monoclonal antibody, clone J116

CABT-L4461-5mg 5 mg
EUR 2886

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 (CD279) Monoclonal antibody, clone J110

CABT-L4466-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1076.4

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 (CD279) Monoclonal antibody, clone J110

CABT-L4466-5mg 5 mg
EUR 2886

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 (CD279) Monoclonal antibody, clone J116

CABT-L4461 1 mg; 5 mg Ask for price
Description: Mouse

Mouse Anti-Human PD-1 (CD279) Monoclonal antibody, clone J110

CABT-L4466 1 mg; 5 mg Ask for price
Description: Mouse

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (Biotin), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8124043-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 390

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (Biotin), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8124043-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1595

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (Biotin), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8124044-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

Anti-PD-L1 Antibody (Biotin), Mouse Monoclonal

MBS8124044-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1405

Mouse PD-1 / CD279 Monoclonal Antibody

TA319692 100 µg Ask for price

PDCD1/CD279/PD-1 Mouse anti-Human Monoclonal (AHC0211) Antibody

MBS2403432-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 615

PDCD1/CD279/PD-1 Mouse anti-Human Monoclonal (AHC0211) Antibody

MBS2403432-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 2605

PDCD1/CD279/PD-1 Mouse anti-Human Monoclonal (Concentrated) Antibody

MBS2403391-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 615

PDCD1/CD279/PD-1 Mouse anti-Human Monoclonal (Concentrated) Antibody

MBS2403391-5x005mL 5x0.05mL
EUR 2605

Mouse PD-L1 Antibody

32903-05111 150 ug
EUR 215

Mouse Anti-Human CD274 (PD-L1) mAbConjugated Antibody

CCM025 100ul
EUR 476.4

Mouse Anti-Human CD273 (PD-L2) mAbConjugated Antibody

CCM031 100ul
EUR 476.4

Anti-PD-1 Antibody

A1384-100 each
EUR 405.6

Anti-PD-1 Antibody

A1384-30T each
EUR 175.2

Anti-PD-1 antibody

STJ190081 200 µl
EUR 236.4
Description: Unconjugated Mouse monoclonal to PD-1 (AS1A13)

Anti-PD-1 Antibody

34067 100ul
EUR 191

Anti-PD-1 Antibody

MBS4156560-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 320

Anti-PD-1 Antibody

MBS4156560-5x01mg 5x0.1mg
EUR 1180

Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse IgG1 (1G1)

HCB-Y128 20ul
EUR 1080.7
Description: Monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 Antibody, Mouse IgG1 (1G1) is expressed from Mouse Hybridoma.

PD-1 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (IHC Gold)

E44H20083 250ul
EUR 655
Description: Biotin-Conjugated, FITC-Conjugated , AF350 Conjugated , AF405M-Conjugated ,AF488-Conjugated, AF514-Conjugated ,AF532-Conjugated, AF555-Conjugated ,AF568-Conjugated , HRP-Conjugated, AF405S-Conjugated, AF405L-Conjugated , AF546-Conjugated, AF594-Conjugated , AF610-Conjugated, AF635-Conjugated , AF647-Conjugated , AF680-Conjugated , AF700-Conjugated , AF750-Conjugated , AF790-Conjugated , APC-Conjugated , PE-Conjugated , Cy3-Conjugated , Cy5-Conjugated , Cy5.5-Conjugated , Cy7-Conjugated Antibody

Mouse Anti-Mouse PD-L1 IgG2b Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 3H9G2

7134 2 mg/ml x 5.0 ml
EUR 524

Mouse Anti-Human CD274 (PD-L1) mAb Conjugated Antibody

MBS9455998-INQUIRE INQUIRE Ask for price

Mouse Anti-Human CD273 (PD-L2) mAb Conjugated Antibody

MBS9455999-INQUIRE INQUIRE Ask for price

In this research, we used a culturomics-primarily based strategy in order to isolate novel microbial taxa from hypersaline environments (i.e. Isla Cristina and Isla Bacuta salterns in Huelva, Spain). We managed to acquire axenic cultures of 4 haloarchaeal strains that belong to a new haloarchaeal genus, and to acquire their genomic sequences.

The phylogenomic and phylogenetic analyses (along with AAI, ANI and digital DDH indices) confirmed that the isolates represent two new species, for which we suggest the names Halosegnis longus sp. nov. and Halosegnis rubeus sp. nov.

The genomic-primarily based metabolic reconstructions indicated that members of this new haloarchaeal genus have photoheterotrophic cardio way of life with a typical salt-in signature. 16S rRNA gene sequence reads abundance profiles and genomic recruitment analyses revealed that the Halosegnis genus has a worldwide geographical distribution, reaching excessive abundance (as much as 8%) in habitats with intermediate salinities.