Regioselective synthesis, physicochemical properties and anticancer activity of 2-aminomethylated estrone derivatives

The unique estrogen receptor (ER)-independent antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is well known, however, its use has been limited because of its poor oral bioavailability. In this study, novel 2-aminomethylated estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) derivatives structurally related to 2ME2 were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties as well as their in vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated in the hope to find more selective antiproliferative agents with improved pharmacokinetic profile. The target compounds were synthesized from 2-dimethylaminomethylated E obtained regioselectively by a three-component Mannich reaction. Quaternization with methyl iodide followed by reacting the ammonium salt with various dialkyl and alicyclic secondary amines afforded the desired products in good yields.
The reactions proceeded via a 1,4-nucleophilic addition of the applied secondary amines to the ortho-quinone methide (o-QM) intermediates, generated in situ from the salt by base-promoted β-elimination. The compound library has been enlarged with structurally similar E2 analogues obtained by stereoselective reduction and with some 17β-benzylamino derivatives prepared by reductive amination. The potential values of the novel E and E2 derivatives were characterised by means of three different approaches. At the first step compounds were virtually screened using physicochemical parameters. Physicochemical characterization was completed by kinetic solubility and in vitro intestinal-specific permeability measurement. Antiproliferative effects were additionally determined on a panel of malignant and non-cancerous cell lines. The evaluation of the pharmacological profile of the novel E and E2 derivatives was completed with the calculation of lipophilic efficacy (LiPE).

The Role of Estriol and Estrone in Keratoconic Stromal Sex Hormone Receptors

Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal thinning disease that manifests in puberty and worsens during pregnancy. KC onset and progression are attributed to diverse factors that include: environmental, genetics, and hormonal imbalances; however, the pathobiology remains elusive. This study aims to determine the role of corneal stroma sex hormone receptors in KC and their interplay with estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) using our established 3D in vitro model. Healthy cornea stromal cells (HCFs) and KC cornea stromal cells (HKCs), both male and female, were stimulated with various concentrations of E1 and E3.
Significant changes were observed between cell types, as well as between males and females in the sex hormone receptors tested; androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) using Western blot analysis. E1 and E3 stimulations in HCF females showed AR, PR, and ERβ were significantly upregulated compared to HCF males. In contrast, ERα and ERβ had significantly higher expression in HKC’s females than HKC’s males. Our data suggest that the human cornea is a sex-dependent, hormone-responsive tissue that is significantly influenced by E1 and E3. Therefore, it is plausible that E1, E3, and sex hormone receptors are involved in the KC pathobiology, warranting further investigation.

Algorithms with Area under the Curve for Daily Urinary Estrone-3-Glucuronide and Pregnanediol-3-Glucuronide to Signal the Transition to the Luteal Phase

Background and Objectives: Home fertility assessment methods (FAMs) for natural family planning (NFP) have technically evolved with the objective metrics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH), estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG). Practical and reliable algorithms for timing the phase of cycle based upon E3G and PDG levels are mostly unpublished and still lacking. Materials and Methods: A novel formulation to signal the transition to the luteal phase was discovered, tested, and developed with a data set of daily E3G and PDG levels from 25 women, 78 cycles, indexed to putative ovulation (day after the urinary LH surge), Day 0. The algorithm is based upon a daily relative progressive change in the ratio, E3G-AUC/PDG-AUC, where E3G-AUC and PDG-AUC are the area under the curve for E3G and PDG, respectively.
To improve accuracy the algorithm incorporated a three-fold cycle-specific increase of PDG. Results: An extended negative change in E3G-AUC/PDG-AUC of at least nine consecutive days provided a strong signal for timing the luteal phase. The algorithm correctly identified the luteal transition interval in 78/78 cycles and predicted the start day of the safe period as: Day + 2 in 10/78 cycles, Day + 3 in 21/78 cycles, Day + 4 in 28/78 cycles, Day + 5 in 15/78 cycles, and Day + 6 in 4/78 cycles. The mean number of safe luteal days with this algorithm was 10.3 ± 1.3 (SD). Conclusions: An algorithm based upon the ratio of the area under the curve for daily E3G and PDG levels along with a relative PDG increase offers another approach to time the phase of cycle. This may have applications for NFP/FAMs and clinical evaluation of ovarian function.

The 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase HSD-X1 of Pseudomonas citronellolis SJTE-3 catalyzes the conversion of 17β-estradiol to estrone

Background: Pseudomonas citronellolis SJTE-3 can efficiently degrade 17β-estradiol (E2) and other estrogenic chemicals. However, the enzyme responsible for E2 metabolism within strain SJTE-3 has remained unidentified.
Objective: Here, a novel 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) (ACP) reductase, HSD-X1 (WP_009617962.1), was identified in SJTE-3 and its enzymatic characteristics for the transformation of E2 were investigated.
Methods: Multiple sequence alignment and homology modelling were used to predict the protein structure of HSD-X1. The concentrations of different steroids in the culture of recombinant strains expressing HSD-X1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the transcription of hsd-x1 gene was investigated using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR analysis. Heterologous expression and affinity purification were used to obtain recombinant HSD-X1.
Results: The transcription of hsd-x1 gene in P. citronellolis SJTE-3 was induced by E2. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) indicated that HSD-X1 contained the two consensus regions and conserved residues of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs). Over-expression of hsd-x1 gene allowed the recombinant strain to degrade E2. Recombinant HSD-X1 was purified with a yield of 22.15 mg/L and used NAD+ as its cofactor to catalyze the oxidization of E2 into estrone (E1), while exhibiting a Km value of 0.025 ± 0.044 mM and a Vmax value of 4.92 ± 0.31 mM/min/mg. HSD-X1 could tolerate a wide range of temperature and pH, while the presence of divalent ions exerted little influence on its activity. Further, the transformation efficiency of E2 into E1 was over 98.03% across 15 min.
Conclusion: Protein HSD-X1 efficiently catalyzed the oxidization of E2 and participated in estrogen degradation by P. citronellolis SJTE-3.

Estrone(Estrone) ELISA Kit

EU3107 FN Test 96T 628.92 EUR

Estrone(Estrone) ELISA Kit

EKF57997-48T Biomatik Corporation 48T 396.9 EUR

Estrone(Estrone) ELISA Kit

EKF57997-5x96T Biomatik Corporation 5x96T 2693.25 EUR

Estrone(Estrone) ELISA Kit

EKF57997-96T Biomatik Corporation 96T 567 EUR

Rat Estrone(Estrone) ELISA Kit

ER1506 FN Test 96T 628.92 EUR

Estrone

AT185 Unibiotest 1mg 1336.8 EUR

Estrone

AG185 Unibiotest 1 mg 627.6 EUR

Estrone

A8426-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 135.6 EUR

Estrone

A8426-50 ApexBio 50 mg 157.2 EUR

Estrone

HY-B0234 MedChemExpress 10mM/1mL 135.6 EUR

Estrone

T1009-10mg TargetMol Chemicals 10mg Ask for price

Estrone

T1009-1g TargetMol Chemicals 1g Ask for price

Estrone

T1009-1mg TargetMol Chemicals 1mg Ask for price

Estrone

T1009-50mg TargetMol Chemicals 50mg Ask for price

Estrone

T1009-5mg TargetMol Chemicals 5mg Ask for price

Estrone

A8426-10000 ApexBio 10g 106 EUR

Estrone

A8426-5000 ApexBio 5g 77 EUR

Estrone

300149 MedKoo Biosciences 500.0mg 90 EUR

Estrone

TBZ2970 ChemNorm 25mg Ask for price

Estrone

E02400 Pfaltz & Bauer 400MG 398 EUR

Estrone

DE4174 Demeditec Diagnostics 96 146 EUR

Estrone ELISA Kit| Rat Estrone ELISA Kit

EF018156 Lifescience Market 96 Tests 826.8 EUR

Estrone ELISA Kit| General Estrone ELISA Kit

EF019603 Lifescience Market 96 Tests 826.8 EUR

Estrone-BSA

80-1448 Fitzgerald 1 mg 781.2 EUR

Estrone-OVA

80-1449 Fitzgerald 1 mg 781.2 EUR

Estrone-2,4,16,16-d4

GC2791-10 Glentham Life Sciences 10 242.4 EUR

Temporal compositional shifts in an activated sludge microbiome during estrone biodegradation

  • Microbial biodegradation is a key process for the removal of estrogens during wastewater treatment. At least four degradation pathways for natural estrogens have been proposed. However, major estrogen degraders and the occurrence of different estrogen biodegradation pathways in wastewater treatment plants have been rarely investigated. This study was conducted to elucidate estrone biodegradation pathway and to identify key estrone-degrading bacteria in activated sludge from a major wastewater treatment plant in Bahrain. The biodegradation experiments were performed in activated sludge microcosms supplemented with estrone. Sludge samples were retrieved at time intervals to analyze the biodegradation metabolites and the temporal shifts in the bacterial community composition.
  • Chemical analysis revealed the biodegradation of more than 90% of the added estrone within 6 days, and the compounds 4-hydroxyestrone and pyridinestrone acid, which are typical markers of the 4,5-seco pathway of aerobic estrone biodegradation, were detected. Temporal shifts in the relative abundance of bacteria were most prominent among members of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. While the alphaproteobacterial genera Novosphingobium and Sphingoaurantiacus were significantly enriched (from ≤ 6% to an average of 31%) in the estrone-amended activated sludge after 2 days of incubation, the bacteroidete Pedobacter was uniquely detected in these microcosms at day 10. The relative abundance of Polyangia (Nannocyctis) increased to an average of 10 ± 0.4% in the estrone-amended activated sludge after 4 days of incubation.
  • Enrichment cultivation of bacteria from the activated sludge on estrone resulted in a mixed culture that was capable of degrading estrone. An estrone-degrading strain was isolated from this mixed culture and was affiliated with the known estrogen-degrading Alphaproteobacteria Sphingobium estrogenivorans. We conclude that estrone degradation in the activated sludge from the studied wastewater treatment plant proceeds via the 4,5-seco pathway and is most likely mediated by alphaproteobacterial taxa.

The Role of Estriol and Estrone in Keratoconic Stromal Sex Hormone Receptors

Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal thinning disease that manifests in puberty and worsens during pregnancy. KC onset and progression are attributed to diverse factors that include: environmental, genetics, and hormonal imbalances; however, the pathobiology remains elusive. This study aims to determine the role of corneal stroma sex hormone receptors in KC and their interplay with estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) using our established 3D in vitro model. Healthy cornea stromal cells (HCFs) and KC cornea stromal cells (HKCs), both male and female, were stimulated with various concentrations of E1 and E3. Significant changes were observed between cell types, as well as between males and females in the sex hormone receptors tested; androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) using Western blot analysis. E1 and E3 stimulations in HCF females showed AR, PR, and ERβ were significantly upregulated compared to HCF males.
In contrast, ERα and ERβ had significantly higher expression in HKC’s females than HKC’s males. Our data suggest that the human cornea is a sex-dependent, hormone-responsive tissue that is significantly influenced by E1 and E3. Therefore, it is plausible that E1, E3, and sex hormone receptors are involved in the KC pathobiology, warranting further investigation.

Compatibility of Estradiol, Estriol, Estrone, Progesterone, and Testosterone Single Formulation in Fitalite, Versatile, or HRT Supreme Cream Base

In this work, we focus on three ready-to-use vehicles: Fitalite, Versatile, and HRT Supreme Cream Base. Fitalite is a natural, light, hydrophilic gel-cream that contains vitamin E and oil bodies from plant sources (phytosomes), providing antioxidant and skinmoisturizing properties. Versatile is a vanishing oil-inwater cream base which retains its consistency with a broad range and high concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients, dermaceutical ingredients, and solvents. Finally, HRT Supreme Cream Base is a paraben-free, dye-free, fragrance-free O/W emulsion base, formulated with a complex of botanical oils to soothe and provide moisture to dry and sensitive skin. In the current study, we evaluated the beyond-use date of formulations containing estradiol, estriol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone in combination, compounded with these three vehicles.
Validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography methods were used throughout a 180-day period. A beyond-use date of 180 days was observed for all vehicles stored both at refrigerated and at room temperature. The combination of five ingredients represents a worst-case scenario since there are more possibilities of cross reactions. Therefore, we expect the same or greater stability as individual ingredients are removed from the tested formulation. The extended beyond-use dates provide convenience for both the compounding pharmacist and the patient.

A technical and clinical evaluation of the new ThermoFisher BRAHMS unconjugated estriol and inhibin-A assays and their use in second trimester Down syndrome screening

To evaluate second-trimester Down syndrome screening performance of the new ThermoFisher BRAHMS GOLD unconjugated estriol (uE3) and inhibin-A assays. Serum samples were analyzed for levels of uE3 and inhibin-A using the ThermoFisher BRAHMS GOLD immunoanalyzer and compared to other platforms. Levels were transformed to multiples of the median (MoM) in unaffected pregnancies. Log10 MoM distributions in unaffected and Down syndrome pregnancies were assessed for central tendency (mean) and dispersion (SD). Empirical and estimated screening performances were determined. Correlation between BRAHMS and AutoDELFIA® uE3 and inhibin-A were 0.63 and 0.97, respectively, the respective mean difference was 31.3% [95%CI 50.2% to -112.8%] and -23.3% [95%CI -41.9% to -4.7%]. Passing-Bablok indicated significant systematic (-2.78 [95%CI -3.57 to -2.04]) and proportional bias (1.30 [95%CI 1.15 to -1.47]) between uE3 assays and significant proportional bias (0.71[95%CI 0.65-0.78]) between inhibin-A assays.
The uE3 and inhibin-A log10 MoM distribution mean [SD] in unaffected and Down syndrome pregnancies were 0.0024 [SD = 0.2341] and -0.0001 [SD = 0.2078], and -0.2028 [SD = 0.2495] and 0.3645 [SD = 0.2576], respectively. The new BRAHMS uE3 and inhibin-A assays had an 81-83% detection rate for Trisomy21 for a 5% false-positive rate. The new BRAHMS assays achieved the expected screening performance provided the risk estimation model is adjusted to account for the higher BRAHMS uE3 MoM measurement distribution variance.

Estriol dissolving microneedle patches for protection against ionizing radiation-induced injury

Estriol can be used to treat radiation-induced leukopenia by increasing peripheral blood leukocytes and therefore it plays an important role in radiation protection. However, only high-dose injectable suspensions are available when estriol is used to combat against ionizing radiation-induced injury. Intramuscular (i.m.) administration of estriol is very painful and inconvenient, and the lack of timely self-administered formulation greatly limits the wide application of estriol. This will facilitate quick response under emergent conditions in complementary with the available estriol formulations. Herein, we prepared estriol microneedle (MNs) patches for the convenient and efficient treatment of radiation-induced injury.
A biocompatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone K90, was dissolved in an estriol solution of methanol and cast into a mold to obtain conical-shaped MNs. N-vinyl pyrrolidone was poured on the base of the MNs and photocured to enhance the mechanical strength of estriol MNs (EMNs). EMNs were easily pierced 200 μm into the mouse skin. More importantly, the EMNs tips were dissolved very quickly within 5 min so that the drugs could permeate across skin. Mouse models of ionizing radiation-induced injury were established with 6.5 Gy radiation of 60Co γ ray. Moreover, EMNs increased peripheral blood leukocytes in irradiated mice, protected the bone marrow hematopoietic system, and improved the survival rate of the irradiated mice to 80 %. EMNs are a promising transdermal drug delivery system that allows for easy, rapid administration and protects the body from damage caused by ionizing radiation.

Estradiol

20-abx185851 Abbexa
  • 226.80 EUR
  • 427.20 EUR
  • 292.80 EUR
  • 1 g
  • 25 g
  • 5 g

?-Estradiol

B7201-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL EtOH) 129.6 EUR

?-Estradiol

B7201-50 ApexBio 50 mg 174 EUR

Estradiol

AT070 Unibiotest 1mg 1641.6 EUR

Estradiol

AG070 Unibiotest 1 mg 627.6 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 129.6 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-50 ApexBio 50 mg 157.2 EUR

Estradiol

E1KS1709 EnoGene 100 mg 296.4 EUR

Estradiol

HY-B0141 MedChemExpress 500mg 129.6 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-10G Glentham Life Sciences 10 g 244.8 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-1G Glentham Life Sciences 1 g 69.6 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-25G Glentham Life Sciences 25 g 438 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-5G Glentham Life Sciences 5 g 156 EUR

Estradiol

317788 MedKoo Biosciences 500.0mg 195 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-1 Glentham Life Sciences 1 27.8 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-10 Glentham Life Sciences 10 172.4 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-25 Glentham Life Sciences 25 332.2 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-5 Glentham Life Sciences 5 98.8 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-1000 ApexBio 1g 52 EUR

Estradiol

T1048-10mg TargetMol Chemicals 10mg Ask for price

Estradiol

T1048-1g TargetMol Chemicals 1g Ask for price

Estradiol

T1048-1mg TargetMol Chemicals 1mg Ask for price

Cortisol and estriol responses to awakening in the first pregnancy trimester: Associations with maternal stress and resilience factors

Background: Little is known about the maternal cortisol awakening response (CAR) in the first pregnancy trimester. Similarly unknown is how the CAR in early gestation relates to other steroid hormones, such as estriol. Maternal estriol in blood and urine is used to monitor fetal well-being since it is produced by the fetoplacental unit from fetal precursors. Low levels have been associated with maternal-fetal complications. We were recently able to show that estriol is measurable in maternal saliva from 6 weeks’ gestation onwards. However, its pattern following morning awakening and potential links with salivary cortisol in early gestation is relatively unknown. In this prospective study, we explored the cortisol and estriol responses to morning awakening in first-trimester pregnant women, the potential association of these endocrine variables with maternal stress and resilience factors, and their predictive value for the further pregnancy course.
Methods: Fifty-one women with an uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy responded to questionnaires measuring chronic and pregnancy-specific stress, emotional support, and daily uplifts at 6 weeks’ gestation. At 8 and 10 weeks, the women collected saliva samples immediately, 30, and 60 min after morning awakening. After 12 weeks, 40 women reported on the further pregnancy course, of whom 6 had developed complications.
Results: In response to morning awakening, cortisol levels increased significantly at 10 weeks (p = .04), while estriol levels decreased significantly at both 8 and 10 weeks (p < .001). A stronger cortisol increase was linked to a stronger estriol decrease at 8 (p = .03), but not at 10 weeks. Then, perceived emotional support at 6 weeks was negatively associated with cortisol baseline at 8 (p = .01) and positively with estriol baseline at 10 weeks (p = .03). Moreover, higher pregnancy-specific stress was related to a lower estriol baseline at 8 weeks (p = .047). Furthermore, compared to healthy women, those with complications at follow-up had already reported less emotional support (p = .03) and fewer daily uplifts (p = .03) at 6 weeks. These women also seemed to lack a significant estriol response to morning awakening at 8 weeks (p > .10).
Discussion: These findings advance our knowledge of cortisol and estriol secretion following morning awakening and encourage the investigation of E3 in addition to cortisol when researching prenatal stress and its consequences for maternal and fetal health.

Analytical performance evaluation of sensitive and old generation reagent in routine practical use: estradiol experience

Evaluation of the analytical performance of tests in medical laboratories is important. Total Error (TE) and sigma analysis have been used as a quantitative indicator of quality for many years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analytical performance of Beckman Coulter Access Estradiol (E2) and Sensitive E2 reagents. Analytical performance of two reagents were evaluated with TE, six sigma and measurement uncertainty values. Two Beckman Coulter Unicel DxI-800 autoanalyzers (A1 and A2) included in the study. Quality control data between December 2017 and December 2019 were used. CLIA-2019 values were used for total allowable error (TEa) limits. Uncertainty values were calculated with ISO/TS 20914.
The median TE of the old generation and sensitive E2 reagent were 27.46% (between 13.49 and 48.88) and 11.16% (between 7.08 and 24.81), respectively (p < .005) The process sigma results were below 3 sigma in all months with the old reagent, whereas with the new reagents it was seen to be above 3 sigma in 11 of 12 months for both autoanalyzers. Uncertainty of old reagent is higher than new reagent. Imprecisions decrease as concentration increases with both reagents. The uncertainty values of low concentration levels are greater than high concentration levels. In conclusion, in both auto analyzers, Sensitive E2 reagent was found to have better performance than old reagent in terms of TE, process sigma and measurement uncertainty. We believe that the sensitive E2 reagent still needs further improvement for patients who have low E2 levels.

Prothymosin Alpha: A Novel Contributor to Estradiol Receptor Alpha-Mediated CD8 + T-Cell Pathogenic Responses and Recognition of Type 1 Collagen in Rheumatic Heart Valve Disease

Background: Rheumatic heart valve disease (RHVD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular death in low- and middle-income countries and affects predominantly women. The underlying mechanisms of chronic valvular damage remain unexplored and regulators of sex predisposition are unknown.
Methods: Proteomics analysis of human heart valves (nondiseased aortic valves, nondiseased mitral valves [NDMVs], valves from patients with rheumatic aortic valve disease, and valves from patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease; n=30) followed by system biology analysis identified ProTα (prothymosin alpha) as a protein associated with RHVD. Histology, multiparameter flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed the expression of ProTα. In vitro experiments using peripheral mononuclear cells and valvular interstitial cells were performed using multiparameter flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In silico analysis of the RHVD and Streptococcus pyogenes proteomes were used to identify mimic epitopes.
Results: A comparison of NDMV and nondiseased aortic valve proteomes established the baseline differences between nondiseased aortic and mitral valves. Thirteen unique proteins were enriched in NDMVs. Comparison of NDMVs versus valves from patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and nondiseased aortic valves versus valves from patients with rheumatic aortic valve disease identified 213 proteins enriched in rheumatic valves. The expression of the 13 NDMV-enriched proteins was evaluated across the 213 proteins enriched in diseased valves, resulting in the discovery of ProTα common to valves from patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and valves from patients with rheumatic aortic valve disease. ProTα plasma levels were significantly higher in patients with RHVD than in healthy individuals. Immunoreactive ProTα colocalized with CD8+ T cells in RHVD. Expression of ProTα and estrogen receptor alpha correlated strongly in circulating CD8+ T cells from patients with RHVD. Recombinant ProTα induced expression of the lytic proteins perforin and granzyme B by CD8+ T cells as well as higher estrogen receptor alpha expression. In addition, recombinant ProTα increased human leukocyte antigen class I levels in valvular interstitial cells. Treatment of CD8+ T cells with specific estrogen receptor alpha antagonist reduced the cytotoxic potential promoted by ProTα. In silico analysis of RHVD and S pyogenes proteomes revealed molecular mimicry between human type 1 collagen epitope and bacterial collagen-like protein, which induced CD8+ T-cell activation in vitro.
Conclusions: ProTα-dependent CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity was associated with estrogen receptor alpha activity, implicating ProTα as a potential regulator of sex predisposition in RHVD. ProTα facilitated recognition of type 1 collagen mimic epitopes by CD8+ T cells, suggesting mechanisms provoking autoimmunity.

Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between the MEK1/MEK2 Inhibitor Trametinib and Oral Contraceptives Containing Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol in Female Patients With Solid Tumors

This phase 1 postapproval study assessed the effect of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase enzyme 1/enzyme 2 inhibitor trametinib (2 mg once daily, repeat dosing) on the pharmacokinetics of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing norethindrone (NE; 1 mg daily) and ethinyl estradiol (EE; 0.035 mg daily) in 19 female patients with solid tumors. Compared with NE/EE administered without trametinib, NE/EE administered with steady-state trametinib was associated with a clinically nonrelevant 20% increase in NE exposure (area under the curve [AUC]) and no effect on EE exposure (geometric mean ratio [geo-mean] of NE/EE + trametinib to NE/EE [90%CI]: NE AUC calculated to the end of a dosing interval at steady-state [AUCtau ] 1.20 [1.02-1.41]; NE AUC from time zero to the last measurable concentration sampling time [AUClast ] 1.2 [0.999-1.45]; EE AUCtau 1.06 [0.923-1.22]; EE AUClast 1.05 [0.883-1.25]).
Maximum serum concentration (Cmax ) of NE increased by 13% and Cmax of EE decreased by 8.5% when dosed with steady-state trametinib compared with COCs administered alone (geo-mean ratio [90%CI]: NE Cmax 1.13 [0.933-1.36]; EE Cmax 0.915 [0.803-1.04]). These results indicate that repeat-dose trametinib does not lower exposure to NE or EE and, hence, is unlikely to impact the contraceptive efficacy of COCs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of trametinib and its metabolite M5 were consistent with historic data of trametinib alone. Coadministration of trametinib and COCs was generally well tolerated in this study, with observed safety signals consistent with the known safety profile of trametinib and no new reported safety events. Overall, the findings indicate that hormonal COCs can be coadministered in female patients who receive trametinib monotherapy without compromising the contraceptive efficacy.

Estradiol

20-abx185851 Abbexa
  • 226.80 EUR
  • 427.20 EUR
  • 292.80 EUR
  • 1 g
  • 25 g
  • 5 g

?-Estradiol

B7201-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL EtOH) 129.6 EUR

?-Estradiol

B7201-50 ApexBio 50 mg 174 EUR

Estradiol

AT070 Unibiotest 1mg 1641.6 EUR

Estradiol

AG070 Unibiotest 1 mg 627.6 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 129.6 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-50 ApexBio 50 mg 157.2 EUR

Estradiol

E1KS1709 EnoGene 100 mg 296.4 EUR

Estradiol

HY-B0141 MedChemExpress 500mg 129.6 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-10G Glentham Life Sciences 10 g 244.8 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-1G Glentham Life Sciences 1 g 69.6 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-25G Glentham Life Sciences 25 g 438 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-5G Glentham Life Sciences 5 g 156 EUR

Estradiol

317788 MedKoo Biosciences 500.0mg 195 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-1 Glentham Life Sciences 1 27.8 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-10 Glentham Life Sciences 10 172.4 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-25 Glentham Life Sciences 25 332.2 EUR

Estradiol

GP9683-5 Glentham Life Sciences 5 98.8 EUR

Estradiol

A8425-1000 ApexBio 1g 52 EUR

Estradiol

T1048-10mg TargetMol Chemicals 10mg Ask for price

Estradiol

T1048-1g TargetMol Chemicals 1g Ask for price

Estradiol

T1048-1mg TargetMol Chemicals 1mg Ask for price

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) as a delivery vehicle for estradiol and sulpiride: Evaluation of endocrine responses in geldings and ovarian response in seasonally anovulatory mares

Sulpiride in vegetable shortening (VS) stimulates prolactin in horses for up to 10 days. Although effective, a pharmaceutical grade vehicle is needed for clinical application of sulpiride in horses. Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB), a hydrophobic polymer, may be an alternative to VS. Four in vivo experiments assessed the efficacy of SAIB for delivery of sulpiride, estradiol cypionate (ECP), and estradiol benzoate (EB). The first three studies utilized geldings to compare prolactin and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations between sulpiride delivered in VS and SAIB, and ECP or EB delivered in SAIB. Sulpiride stimulated (P < .01) prolactin similarly between vehicles. Geldings pre-treated with EB had higher (P < .05) prolactin responses to sulpiride compared to ECP-treated geldings on days 5, 6 and 9.
Both estradiol-sulpiride treatments stimulated LH with no differences between ECP and EB. Experiment 3 compared a simultaneous injection of EB-sulpiride to a non-simultaneous injection (one day apart) of EB-sulpiride. Prolactin was stimulated (P < .05) in both treatment groups, but the response lasted 2 days longer in geldings treated a day apart. Plasma LH increased (P < .01) in both groups equally for 10 days. Experiment 4 applied simultaneous and non-simultaneous EB-sulpiride treatments to seasonally anovulatory mares to induce ovarian activity. Prolactin and LH were stimulated similarly between treatments; however, non-simultaneously treated mares tended (P = .07) to have an ovarian response earlier. In conclusion, SAIB was a suitable vehicle for administration of estradiol and sulpiride and could be an alternative to VS for sustained-release drug delivery.

EVALUATION OF EPIANDROSTERONE AS A LONG-TERM MARKER OF TESTOSTERONE USE

  • Identification and evaluation of long-term markers is crucial in prolonging the detection window for anabolic steroid abuse in sport. Recently, sulfoconjugated epiandrosterone was identified as a potential long-term marker for the abuse of certain endogenous anabolic agents, including testosterone, which continues to be widely used as a performance enhancing agent in sport. To evaluate the applicability of epiandrosterone sulfate as a marker for testosterone use, administration studies were conducted with multiple modes of testosterone administration – transdermal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous.
  • A modified sample preparation method was used to collect both glucuronidated and sulfoconjugated analytes of interest. Carbon isotope ratio measurements from the administration studies are presented here. Epiandrosterone was less effective than the conventionally used target compounds for detection of the low dose application (transdermal gel). With intramuscular administration, epiandrosterone was more diagnostic than with transdermal administration, but it did not prolong the detection window more than the conventional target compounds.
  • With subcutaneous administration, the doses administered to the subjects were varied and the effect in the epiandrosterone values was dependent on the magnitude of the dose administered. Epiandrosterone does not appear to be a useful marker in the detection of low dose testosterone administration. It is responsive to higher dose administration, but it does not provide extension of the detection window relative to conventional target compounds.

Development and validation of a fast gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for the detection of epiandrosterone sulfate in urine.

In doping control, to confirm the exogenous origin of exogenously administered anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), a gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis is performed. Recently published work suggests epiandrosterone sulfate (EpiAS) as a promising IRMS target compound for the detection of AAS, capable of prolonging the detection window. However, EpiAS is only excreted in urine in its sulfoconjugated form while all other IRMS target compounds are excreted glucuronidated, meaning that EpiAS cannot be incorporated in the existing IRMS methods.
A separate extensive sample preparation needs to be performed on this compound with a different hydrolysis and extraction procedure and a different liquid chromatography (LC) clean-up. The current work presents a new, fast and easy to implement EpiAS IRMS method. The approach was based on the direct GC analysis of non-hydrolysed EpiAS, making the solid phase extraction, hydrolysis and acetylation step redundant.
Sample preparation consisted of a simple liquid liquid extraction, followed by LC fraction collection. A population study was performed to check the compliance with the criteria drafted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To verify the applicability of the developed approach, the method was applied to the samples of four administration studies (i.e., dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone gel (T gel), androstenedione (ADION) and intramuscular testosterone undecanoate. In contrast to previously published data, the strength of EpiAS as target compound and the prolongation of the detection window in comparison with the conventional IRMS target compounds was less pronounced.

Synthesis and bioevaluation of novel steroidal isatin conjugates derived from epiandrosterone/androsterone.

Steroids are classes of natural products widely distributed in nature, which have been demonstrated to exhibit broad biological functions, and have also attracted increasing interest from bioorganic and pharmaceutical researches. In order to develop novel chemical entities as potential cytotoxic agents, a series of steroidal isatin conjugations derived from epiandrosterone and androsterone were efficiently prepared and characterized, and all these obtained compounds were screened for their potential cytotoxic activities.
The preliminary bioassay indicated that most of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited good cytotoxic activities against human gastric cancer (SGC-7901), melanoma (A875), and hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which might be considered as promising scaffold for further development of potential anticancer agents.

The quantitation of 7beta-hydroxy-epiandrosterone in the plasma and seminal plasma of men with different degrees of fertility.

7beta-hydroxy-epiandrosterone (7beta-OH-EpiA) is an endogenous androgen metabolite that has been shown to exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-estrogenic effects. However, to the best of our knowledge no information is available about this androgen steroid in relation to sperm quality. We analyzed 7beta-OH-EpiA in plasma and seminal plasma using a newly developed isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry method. Validation met the requirements of FDA guidelines. Levels of 7beta-OH-EpiA were measured in 191 men with different degrees of infertility. One-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison and correlation analysis adjusted for age, BMI and abstinence time were performed to evaluate the relationships between this steroid and sperm quality.
Concentrations of 7beta-OH-EpiA in seminal plasma were significantly higher in severely infertile men in comparison with healthy men and slightly infertile men. The same trend was found when blood plasma was evaluated. Furthermore, plasma 7beta-OH-EpiA negatively correlated with sperm concentration (-0.215; p<0.01) and total count (-0.15; p<0.05). Seminal 7beta-OH-EpiA was negatively associated with motility (-0.26; p<0.01), progressively motile spermatozoa (-0.233; p<0.01) and nonprogressively motile spermatozoa (-0.188; p<0.05). 7beta-OH-EpiA is associated with lower sperm quality and deserves more research in that respect.

Epiandrosterone sulfate prolongs the detectability of testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone misuse by means of carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

In the course of investigations into the metabolism of testosterone (T) by means of deuterated T and hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry, a pronounced influence of the oral administration of T on sulfoconjugated steroid metabolites was observed. Especially in case of epiandrosterone sulfate (EPIA_S), the contribution of exogenous T to the urinary metabolite was traceable up to 8 days after a single oral dose of 40 mg of T. These findings initiated follow-up studies on the capability of EPIA_S to extend the detection of T and T analogue misuse by carbon isotope ratio (CIR) mass spectrometry in sports drug testing. Excretion study urine samples obtained after transdermal application of T and after oral administration of 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and EPIA were investigated regarding urinary concentrations and CIR.
With each administered steroid, EPIA_S was significantly depleted and prolonged the detectability when compared to routinely used steroidal target compounds by a factor of 2 to 5. In order to simplify the sample preparation procedure for sulfoconjugated compounds, enzymatic cleavage by Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase was tested and implemented into CIR measurements for the first time. Further simplification was achieved by employing multidimensional gas chromatography to ensure the required peak purity for CIR determinations, instead of sample purification strategies using liquid chromatographic fractionation. Taking into account these results that demonstrate the unique and broad applicability of EPIA_S for the detection of illicit administrations of T or T-related steroids, careful consideration of how this steroid can be implemented into routine doping control analysis appears warranted.

An omics investigation into chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain reveals epiandrosterone sulfate as a potential biomarker.

Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is common, having a population prevalence of 10%. This study aimed to define the biological basis of the CWP/body mass association by using a systems biology approach. Adult female twins (n = 2444) from the TwinsUK registry who had extensive clinical, anthropometric, and “omic” data were included. Nontargeted metabolomics screening including 324 metabolites was carried out for CWP and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The biological basis of these associations was explored through a genome-wide association study and replicated in an independent population sample (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg [KORA] study, n = 2483). A causal role for the genetic variants identified was sought in CWP using a Mendelian randomisation study design.
Fat mass/height2 was the body composition variable most strongly associated with CWP (TwinsUK: P = 2.4 × 10(-15) and KORA: P = 1.59 × 10(-10)). Of 324 metabolites examined, epiandrosterone sulfate (EAS) was highly associated with both CWP (P = 1.05 × 10(-09) in TwinsUK and P = 3.70 × 10(-06) in KORA) and fat mass/height2. Genome-wide association study of EAS identified imputed single nucleotide polymorphism rs1581492 at 7q22.1 to be strikingly associated with EAS levels (P ≤ 2.49 × 10(-78)), and this result was replicated in KORA (P = 2.12 × 10(-9)). Mendelian randomization by rs1581492 genotype showed that EAS is unlikely to be causally related to CWP. Using an agnostic omics approach to focus on the association of CWP with body mass index, we have confirmed a steroid hormone association and identified a genetic variant upstream of the CYP genes, which likely controls this response. This study suggests that steroid hormone abnormalities result from pain rather than causing it, and EAS may provide a biomarker that identifies subgroups at risk of CWP.

Epiandrosterone

B1505-1000 ApexBio 1 g 115.2 EUR

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B1505-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 135.6 EUR

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Epiandrosterone Sulfate

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T2195L-1g TargetMol Chemicals 1g Ask for price

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T2195L-50mg TargetMol Chemicals 50mg Ask for price

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T2195L-5mg TargetMol Chemicals 5mg Ask for price

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Epiandrosterone sheep polyclonal antibody, Ig Fraction

AP09712PU-L Origene Technologies GmbH 1 ml Ask for price

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AP09712PU-N Origene Technologies GmbH 100 µl Ask for price

14-Epiandrographolide

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An omics investigation into chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain reveals epiandrosterone sulfate as a potential biomarker.

Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is common, having a population prevalence of 10%. This study aimed to define the biological basis of the CWP/body mass association by using a systems biology approach. Adult female twins (n = 2444) from the TwinsUK registry who had extensive clinical, anthropometric, and “omic” data were included. Nontargeted metabolomics screening including 324 metabolites was carried out for CWP and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The biological basis of these associations was explored through a genome-wide association study and replicated in an independent population sample (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg [KORA] study, n = 2483). A causal role for the genetic variants identified was sought in CWP using a Mendelian randomisation study design.
Fat mass/height2 was the body composition variable most strongly associated with CWP (TwinsUK: P = 2.4 × 10(-15) and KORA: P = 1.59 × 10(-10)). Of 324 metabolites examined, epiandrosterone sulfate (EAS) was highly associated with both CWP (P = 1.05 × 10(-09) in TwinsUK and P = 3.70 × 10(-06) in KORA) and fat mass/height2. Genome-wide association study of EAS identified imputed single nucleotide polymorphism rs1581492 at 7q22.1 to be strikingly associated with EAS levels (P ≤ 2.49 × 10(-78)), and this result was replicated in KORA (P = 2.12 × 10(-9)). Mendelian randomization by rs1581492 genotype showed that EAS is unlikely to be causally related to CWP. Using an agnostic omics approach to focus on the association of CWP with body mass index, we have confirmed a steroid hormone association and identified a genetic variant upstream of the CYP genes, which likely controls this response. This study suggests that steroid hormone abnormalities result from pain rather than causing it, and EAS may provide a biomarker that identifies subgroups at risk of CWP.